Dossier Reishi: Allergie

Er wordt steeds meer gemeld dat mensen minder last hebben van pollen in het hooikoortsseizoen, als ze gemiddeld 3-4 Sporen capsules per dag nemen. Sommigen zijn er zelfs helemaal vanaf en nemen in die tijd nog een onderhoudsdosering.

Toelichting Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) zou een remmende werking hebben op het vrijkomen van histamine. Met name de triterpenen die voorkomen in de paddenstoel en vooral ook in de sporen, zouden het anti-allergische of anti-histamine effect geven. Volgens een vooraanstaand instituut in Amerika suggereert onderzoek in het laboratorium dat de Reishi paddenstoel anti-histamine effecten zou kunnen hebben, maar dat dit niet is getest in de mens.

Zie: http://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/herb/reishi-mushroom (Consumer-informatie.

Gerelateerde literatuur:

Mizutani N, Nabe T, et al. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on pollen-induced biphasic nasal blockage in a guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. Phytother. Res. 2012 Mar;26(3):325-32. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3557. Epub 2011 Jun 23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21698671

Abstract

Ganoderma lucidum (GL), an oriental medical mushroom, has been used in Asia for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. However, the effect of GL on allergic rhinitis has not been well defined. The current study describes the inhibitory effect of GL on the biphasic nasal blockage and nasal hyperresponsiveness induced by repeated antigen challenge in a guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. Intranasally sensitized guinea pigs were repeatedly challenged by inhalation of Japanese cedar pollen once every week. Ganoderma lucidum was orally administered once daily for 8 weeks from the time before the first challenge. The treatment with GL dose-dependently inhibited the early and late phase nasal blockage at the fifth to ninth antigen challenges. Furthermore, nasal hyperresponsiveness to intranasally applied leukotriene D₄ on 2 days after the eighth antigen challenge was also inhibited by the treatment with GL. However, Cry j 1-specific IgE antibody production was not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the pollen-induced biphasic nasal blockage and nasal hyperresponsiveness were suppressed by the daily treatment with GL in the guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. These results suggest that GL may be a useful therapeutic drug for treating patients with allergic rhinitis.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis, Pollen allergy, Hay fever, Seasonal allergic rhinitis.



Het volgende wetenschappelijke artikel geeft een uitstekend overzicht van de vele werkingen van Ganoderma lucidum. Er wordt een hoofdstuk gewijd aan de anti-allergische eigenschappen.

Sanodiya BS, Thakur GS, Baghel RK, Prasad GB, Bisen PS. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent pharmacological macrofungus. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2009 Dec;10(8):717-42. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19939212 
Voor het volledige PDF-artikel: Original article.

Abstract

Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi) is a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus which has been used extensively as "the mushroom of immortality" in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2000 years. A great deal of work has been carried out on therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum. The basidiocarp, mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum contain approximately 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly include triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleotides, sterols, steroids, fatty acids, proteins/peptides and trace elements which has been reported to have a number of pharmacological effects including immunomodulation, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, chemo-preventive, antitumor, chemo and radio protective, sleep promoting, antibacterial, antiviral (including anti-HIV), hypolipidemic, anti-fibrotic, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-androgenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-herpetic, antioxidative and radical-scavenging, anti-aging, hypoglycemic, estrogenic activity and anti-ulcer properties. Ganoderma lucidum has now become recognized as an alternative adjuvant in the treatment of leukemia, carcinoma, hepatitis and diabetes. The macrofungus is very rare in nature rather not sufficient for commercial exploitation for vital therapeutic emergencies, therefore, the cultivation on solid substrates, stationary liquid medium or by submerged cultivation has become an essential aspect to meet the driving force towards the increasing demands in the international market. Present review focuses on the pharmacological aspects, cultivation methods and bioactive metabolites playing a significant role in various therapeutic applications.

Hoofdstuk 2.8 van dit artikel bespreekt: Anti-Allergic Property of Ganoderma lucidum

Allergy and asthma are two examples of histamine mediated allergic response. Both conditions are increasing in frequency and are difficult to target with modern medicine. The modern approach to anti-allergic drug research is targetspecific and does not consider the natural defence mechanisms of the body or the causative factors (the shift of cytokine TH1 to a predominantly TH2 cytokine) underlying histamine- mediated allergic responses. The fruiting bodies G.lucidum have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of asthma or allergy. G. lucidum as immunonutraceutical [88], with its unique array of compounds working in concert, could play a major role in treatment of histamine-mediated allergic responses. Martin P [ref. 87] stated that G. lucidum is an effective agent to restore the normal balance between the cytokines TH1 and TH2 immune states in patients with histamine-mediated allergic responses. Such an approach treats the underlying cause for the TH2 condition.

In a case study of hay fever patients, Martin P [ref. 87] found that patients (male) of age 5 and 39 with different doses viz. 2 tablets x 500 mg a day and 6 tablets x 500 mg per day of G. lucidum respectively, a marked decrease in drowsiness, itchiness and sneezing was found after 2 and 10 days respectively.

In the course of a screening test for the inhibition of histamine release from rat mast cells, it was found for the first time that ganoderic acids C and D inhibited histamine release from rat mast cells [ref. 45-49]. Other than the triterpenoid compounds, cyclo-octasulfur from this fungus also effectively inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and interacted with membrane proteins to inhibit Ca uptake causing a blockade of histamine release [ref. 16, 18, 20, 45-49]

References from the Sanodiya-article:

[87] Martin, P. "The Use of Ganoderma lucidum." the Management of Histamine-Mediated Allergic Responses. In: Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients (2006): 26-30.

[45] Nogami, M.; Ito, M.; Kubo, M.; Takahashi, M.; Kimura, H. and Matsuike, Y. (1986) Studies on Ganoderma lucidum. VII. Antiallergic effect. J. Pharmaceut. Soc. Jpn., 106, 600-604. Japanese, no abstract.

[46] Nogami, M.; Tsuji, Y.; Kubo, M.; Takahashi, M.; Kimura, H. and Matsuike, Y. (1986) Studies on Ganoderma lucidum. VI. Antiallergic effect. J. Pharmaceut. Soc. Jpn., 106, 594-599. Japanese, no abstract.

[47] Kohda, H.; Tokumoto, W.; Sakamoto, K.; Fujii, M.; Hirai, Y.; Yamasaki, K.; Komoda, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Ishihara, S. and Uchida, M. (1985) The biologically active constituents of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. Histamine release-inhibitory triterpenes. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 33, 1367-1374. 

[48] Tasaka, K.; Akagi, M.; Miyoshi, K.; Mio, M. and Makino, T. (1988) Anti-allergic constituents in the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum. (I). Inhibitory effect of oleic acid on histamine release. Agents Actions, 23, 153-156. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2455975

[49] Tasaka, K.; Mio, M.; Izushi, K.; Akagi, M. and Makino, T. (1988) Anti-allergic constituents in the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum. (II). The inhibitory effect of cyclooctasulfur on histamine release. Agents Actions, 23, 157-160. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2455976